Burkina Faso is a sahelian country, marked by a low and random rainfall. The water mobilized for the supply of drinking water in rural areas is mainly groundwater. Or 80% of the territory is located on a basement area, where water is not abundant and flow rates generally very low.
Water resources are subject to numerous constraints (demographic, climatic, etc.) and are polluted by certain practices (discharges of wastewater, pesticides, products used for gold mining, etc.). The people themselves notice it on field: the wells and boreholes that used to give water all year round, do not work, today, only part of the year.
Water resources are currently insufficient with 852 m3 per person per year, which places Burkina Faso below the threshold of shortage.
Water resources are crucial for its development and play a major role in the economy, mining, agriculture, livestock, fisheries and industry. However, access to drinking water remains a daily challenge for a significant portion of the population. With a population growth of 3.1% per year in 2018, Burkina Faso today has 20.3 million inhabitants with a forecast of reaching 29 million in 2030. But it is also one of the poorest countries. In the world, it is ranked 185th according to the UN Human Development Index in 2018. More than 40% of the population lives below the poverty line with less than $ 1.9 per day in 2018. This poverty is that the majority of poor households remain excluded from essential services.
Today, there are still significant disparities in access to improved drinking water between rural and urban areas. In rural areas, only 65% of the population has access to a water source, of which 43% have access to an improved water source compared to 79% in urban areas. In addition to the lack of equipment, there are still major challenges in the effective management of existing equipment.
Every day millions of women and children walk several kilometers to get water. This harsh reality is compounded by lack of food, limited access to education, lack of adequate sanitation, and unsafe hygienic practices that lead to serious illnesses that often lead to death. In fact, after malaria and acute respiratory infections, waterborne diseases are the third leading cause of infant mortality in the world, particularly in Burkina Faso, where the infant mortality rate is among the highest in the world. Of 66,000 in 2017 (UNICEF). According to United Nations figures, 170,000 people die because of lack of access to clean water; the time you will spend reading these lines 25 children will have died of diarrhea related to unhealthy water consumption (UNICEF).
The exploitation and control of water, both in rural and urban areas, have become strategic issues with regard to population growth, the diversification of economic activities and the current degradation of the environment. The water resource is the subject of many greed, which in the absence of adequate treatment are as many vectors of tension, between states but also within cities and the countryside. The challenge lies in the ability to put in place mechanisms that manage to reconcile an objective of equal access for all while taking into account the differences in the financial potential of individuals.
In this perspective of presentation of efficient and effective solutions, Kontinental Water Africa, operating on the African continent in the field of the production and treatment of water treatment, proposes to present to the authorities of Burkina Faso a project of «Mobile water treatment units in rural areas for Burkina Faso ».
The solution proposed by KWA is to implement mobile treatment units coupled to tanker trucks to provide drinking water extracted from surface water near rural communes to the fountains easily accessible by the people. The mobile units are equipped with organic treatment systems.
They will be positioned near streams of water, rivers, lakes, etc. to make raw water safe and safe for people.
The advantage of the mobility of such systems will be the ability to change raw water points and thus maximize the chances of securing sufficient volumes of drinking water without disturbing natural ecosystems.
These units will fill tanker trucks which in turn will make a greater radius of action by going to the fountains that will be installed in the municipalities near the fetching point. The tanker trucks will work in such a way as to circumnavigate and replenish the necessary volumes of water in an optimized way (according to the geographical locations of the rural communes, roads, populations to be supplied, etc.).
A single unit will allow access to water to more than 30 000 inhabitants per day with a production of 160 000 L / day.